Jérémy Wambecke - Visualization of personal time-dependent data

Organized by: 
Jérémy Wambecke
Jérémy Wambecke


Jury :

  • Georges-Pierre Bonneau, professeur, Universite Grenoble Alpes, directeur de thèse
  • David Auber, professeur, Universite de Bordeaux, rapporteur
  • Stephane  Conversy, professeur, ENAC-Toulouse, rapporteur
  • Patrick Reignier, professeur, Grenoble INP, examinateur

The production of energy, in particular the production of electricity, is the main responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases at world scale. The residential sector being the most energy consuming, it is essential to act at a personal scale to reduce these emissions. Thanks to the development of ubiquitous computing, it is now easy to collect data about the electricity consumption of electrical appliances of a housing. This possibility has allowed the development of eco-feedback technologies, whose objective is to provide to consumers a feedback about their consumption with the aim to reduce it. In this thesis we propose a personal visualization method for time-dependent data based on a what if interaction, which means that users can apply modifications in their behavior in a virtual way. Especially our method allows to simulate the modification of the usage of electrical appliances of a housing, and then to evaluate visually the impact of the modifications on data. This approach has been implemented in the Activelec system, which we have evaluated with users on real data. 
We synthesize the essential elements of conception for eco-feedback systems in a state of the art. We also outline the limitations of these technologies, the main one being the difficulty faced by users to find relevant modifications in their behavior to decrease their energy consumption.  
We then present three contributions. The first contribution is the development of a what if approach applied to eco-feedback as well as its implementation in the Activelec system. The second contribution is the evaluation of our approach with two laboratory studies. In these studies we assess if participants using our method manage to find modifications that save energy and which require a sufficiently low effort to be applied in reality. Finally the third contribution is the in-situ evaluation of the Activelec system. Activelec has been deployed in three private housings and used for a duration of approximately one month. This in-situ experiment allows to evaluate the usage of our approach in a real domestic context. In these three studies, participants managed to find modifications in the usage of appliances that would save 
a significant amount of energy, while being judged easy to be applied in reality. 
We also discuss of the application of our what if approach to the domain of personal visualization, beyond electricity consumption data, which is defined as the visual analysis of personal data. We hence present several potential applications to other types of time-dependent personal data, for example related to physical activity or to transportation. This thesis opens new perspectives for using a what if interaction paradigm for personal visualization.